Clinical Research

Individualized care for your patients based on the latest scientific advances

The G.A.P Test was developed by a team of acclaimed geneticists and is supported by a growing body of clinical research, which has been validated by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG).

Formed out of a partnership between the Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB) and the Pharmacogenomics Research Network, The CPIC provides physicians with prescribing guidelines for specific drugs derived from the latest pharmacogenetics research publications. Open access to these guidelines along with recommendations and a centralized listing of all known gene-drug relationships can be found at www.pharmgkb.org.

CPIC members hail from over 80 of the top research institutions, hospitals and universities including:

CPIC-Members-TransparentTo learn more about the latest in pharmacogenetic research, we recommend the following studies:

How common are drug and gene interactions? Prevalence in a sample of 1143 patients with CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotyping. 

Verbeurgt P, Mamiya T, Oesterheld J. How common are drug and gene interactions? Prevalence in a sample of 1143 patients with CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotyping. Pharmacogenomics. 2014;15(5):655-65. PubMed PMID: 24798722.

Pharmacogenomics — Drug Disposition, Drug Targets, and Side Effects

Evans WE, McLeod HL. Pharmacogenomics — drug disposition, drug targets, and side effects. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 Feb 6;348(6):538-49.

Pharmacogenetics and Cardiovascular Disease—Implications for Personalized Medicine

Johnson JA, Cavallari LH. Pharmacogenetics and Cardiovascular Disease—Implications for Personalized Medicine. Touyz RM, ed. Pharmacological Reviews. 2013;65(3):987-1009. doi:10.1124/pr.112.007252.

Pharmacogenomics of drug-metabolizing enzymes: a recent update on clinical implications and endogenous effects 

Sim SC ,Kacevska M, Ingelman-Sundberg M . Pharmacogenomics of drug-metabolizing enzymes: a recent update on clinical implications and endogenous effects. The Pharmacogenomics Journal. 2013 13, 1–11

The Potential Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Psychiatry

Gardner KR, Brennan FX, Scott R, Lombard J. The Potential Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Psychiatry. Psychiatry Journal. 2014;2014:730956. doi:10.1155/2014/730956.

Optimizing drug outcomes through pharmacogenetics: a case for preemptive genotyping.

Schildcrout JS, Denny JC, Bowton E, et al. Optimizing drug outcomes through pharmacogenetics: A case for preemptive genotyping. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2012;92(2):235-242. doi:10.1038/clpt.2012.66.

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: a bridge to individualized cancer therapy.

Weng L, Zhang L, Peng Y, Huang RS. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: a bridge to individualized cancer therapy.Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14(3):315-324. doi:10.2217/pgs.12.213.

Principles of Pharmacology, 3rd Ed: Clinical Pharmacogenetics

Flockhart D, Huang S. Chapter 13: Clinical Pharmacogenetics. In: Atkinson A, Huang S, Lertora J, Markey S, eds. Principles of Pharmacology. 3rd ed. Elsevier; 2012:195-215.

Principles of Pharmacology, 3rd Ed: Mechanisms and Genetics of Drug Transport 

Ware J, Zhang L, Huang S. Chapter 14: Mechanisms and Genetics of Drug Transport. In: Atkinson A, Huang S, Lertora J, Markey S, eds. Principles of Pharmacology. 3rd ed. Elsevier; 2012:217-237.

Principles of Pharmacology, 3rd Ed: Pharmacogenomic Mechanisms of Drug Toxicity

Huang S, Chen L, Giacomini K. Chapter 17: Pharmacogenomic Mechanisms of Drug Toxicity. In: Atkinson A, Huang S, Lertora J, Markey S, eds. Principles of Pharmacology. 3rd ed. Elsevier; 2012:285-306.